Articulation & Phonological Therapy 

A child may struggle with an articulation disorder when they have trouble physically producing a sound or sounds. Similarly, a phonological disorder exists when the child produces set patterns of sound errors. In order to identify that one or both of these disorders are present, a speech-language pathologist will first give a formal test to check the child's ability to say all sounds in various contexts. Furthermore, the speech-language pathologist will usually check language skills as well so that they may assess overall communication abilities. 

When providing articulation therapy, the speech-language pathologist will show the child how to place and move the tongue and lips to produce sounds, then have the child imitate them. The child will practice with the speech-language pathologist saying the sounds in different words. Eventually, the speech-langauge pathologist will encourage the child to practice different sounds in phrases, sentences, and conversation. 

When providing phonological therapy, the speech-language pathologist will usually teach the child the sound system rules and the link between sounds and word meanings. A way that the speech-language pathologist may have the child practice is by identifying and producing word pairs that differ by only one sound, in order to learn these rules.